The French barque Adolphe is just one of many shipwrecks that litter the entrance to Newcastle Harbour, yet 110 years after the disaster, this vessel is still one of the most visible. Carol Duncan spoke with Deb Mastello of the Newcastle Maritime Centre. [ABC Radio 2014]
A walk along the 2km stretch of Stockton Breakwall known as the Shipwreck Walk will allow you to see the remains of the Adolphe – yet the remains of The Sygna wrecked in 1974 are expected to be gone within the next decade.
Having sailed from Antwerp, the Adolphe was ultimately heading for Sydney to load wheat, however in large seas the ship came to grief on Newcastle’s notorious ‘Oyster Bank’ in 1904 after colliding with the wreck of another vessel, the Colonist, whilst being manoeuvred in to port by the tugs ‘Hero’ and ‘Victoria’.
The terrible irony of the story of the Adolphe is that it shouldn’t have actually come in to Newcastle at all. In 1904 there were competing tug companies working in the port and the company that had chartered the Adolphe used its own operators.
When the Adolphe arrived off Newcastle, the captain waited in vain for the tug operators to arrive. Eventually, the Adolphe was readied to be brought in to port by a competing tug company and it was on the way in that the message was seen at Nobbys Signal Station from the owners of the Adolphe to NOT enter Newcastle, but to continue straight past onto Sydney.
In large seas, the Adolphe was hit by three waves – the first of which broke the rope securing the Adolphe to the Victoria; the second save pushed the Adolphe toward the Oyster Bank (already littered with wrecks); and the third wave lifted the Adolphe and deposited the ship on top of several other wrecks including the Colonist, the Wendouree and the Cawarra. The Cawarra disaster in 1866 itself remains one of the worst in Australian maritime history.
While the loss of the Adolphe was a terrible loss for the company, all 47 persons on board the ship were safely removed and indeed the Australian Consul-General for France came to Newcastle to officially recognise the work of the lifeboat crew. The rescue of the ship’s crew has gone down in local maritime history as one of the most remarkable in local waters.
One of Newcastle’s many hidden places, not open to the public, is a remnant of the Shepherds Hill defence group. A tunnel underneath Memorial Drive enabled power to be supplied to the WWII No 1 Searchlight which was situated on the face of the cliff below Strzelecki Lookout. [Carol Duncan ABC Radio 2013 with Newcastle City Council Heritage Strategist, Sarah Cameron.]
Military occupation of the Shepherds Hill site began in the 1890s, but by 1939 Newcastle was one of the major producers of munitions for NSW and an increasingly important industrial area.
BHP had been preparing for an outbreak of war since Essington Lewis had made a trip to Europe in 1934 so Newcastle was significant to the entire country for both steel production and security.
In order to protect production, defences around Newcastle were strengthened and two new close defence batteries were constructed at Shepherds Hill and Fort Scratchley.
New projects at Shepherds Hill during WWII included accommodation for troops and the construction of the Nos 1 and 2 Searchlights and engine rooms.
The tunnel from the No 1 Searchlight engine room runs about 150m underneath Memorial Drive to where the searchlight was placed underneath the cliff face of Strzelecki Lookout.
The tunnel is not open to the public and the engine room is located on private property, however the tunnel now hosts a colony of microbats!
Designed by Edmund Blacket and constructed between 1857 and 1860, St John’s Anglican Church in Cooks Hill is Newcastle’s oldest standing church with a busy and vibrant modern congregation.[Local Treasures ABC Radio 2013]
Reverend Stewart Perry says even though it is the oldest standing church left in Newcastle, it’s got a lot of history and is, “Above all, it’s just a gorgeous building.”
Unusually, the timber ceiling of the church is painted pale blue and dotted with stars, Rev Perry says it’s a feature of the work of the architect, Edmund Blacket, “People often wonder if the stars are something that was added later but it was one of the original features.”
“It was a trademark of the architect who designed the building. He painted the ceilings blue and had stars just near the sanctuary so that when people looked up they saw a glimpse of the heavens. If you were in a wealthier community your stars tended to be gold-gilded but in a working class community like Cooks Hill was originally your stars were silver.”
“Part of the light aspect of the church comes through the restoration of the stained glass windows which have brought out of the walls and framed with a blue border. At different times of day the sun just streams through and often when I’m doing a wedding on a Saturday afternoon, the bride is standing at the front door with the glare of the sun almost creating a halo or aura effect around her, which I’m sure the groom is quite impressed with.”
“St John’s has changed over the years. The misconception of old buildings is that they have to be kept in the same format. Originally it was built to seat 400 people and if you look around you’d wonder where we’d put them all, but during our 150th anniversary a few years ago we did squeeze 400 people in. They weren’t very comfortable but we did it.”
“There’s been a re-arrangement of the pews, which in Anglican church history is a momentous event. They’ve added a stepped feature at the sanctuary level of the church and we’ve got drum kits and PA systems and screens that come down from the ceiling so it’s certainly changed a bit.”
The heritage status of St John’s brings its own challenges.
“We’ve been very blessed to have funding from the heritage society to do some of the restoration work in the church but there are some things that sometimes aren’t practical in a growing church, to have things in a certain format and furnishings that you’d really love to be able to change but because of the heritage of the building we need to consider that carefully.”
What does Rev Perry consider to be the special items or treasures of St John’s?
“There are many ‘treasures’ and most of them are donated by family members of people who’ve passed away so if you look around our building you’ll see little memorial plaques everywhere. We’ve also got a big brass birdy (eagle) that we read the Bible from on a Sunday morning, that was donated by a family.”
“At the back of the church is the font, one of my favourite parts where historically we used to do all of our baptisms. We don’t do so many of them there anymore but the idea comes from the early church that you weren’t allowed into the body of the church until you were baptised so you come in the door, you get baptised on the way and then you can sit in the church. I can’t imagine how many children, and adults, would have been baptised in that font up there in the corner.”
“Absolutely everything that you see in a church has a story attached to it. All of the artwork comes from a time before most people could read so stained glass windows and art and big brass birdies were ways of letting people in on the secret – only the clergy and the educated could read the Bible, and so they looked to this beauty to try and capture some of the sense of God’s love and God’s majesty.”
“St John’s also has the oldest working pipe organ in Newcastle. It’s an amazing instrument and sounds magical.”
There are no burials at St John’s. Rev Perry says that lots of people ‘left’ from here but ended up in graveyards all over Newcastle, “The church was built when there was a number of gravesites around Newcastle. We’re one of the few churches that never had a graveyard attached to it.”
“When Gionni Di Gravio (from the University of Newcastle) did some history for the 150th anniversary a few years ago, I had a look at the funeral register and a lot of people were buried around Mayfield and Wallsend but had their services here at St John’s. It’s interesting how wide the catchment was in the original days of St John’s.”
One of the stained glass windows of St John’s Anglican Church is only relatively recent and remembers the tragic deaths of a local couple.
“It was dedicated in the mid-1990’s and donated by the family of Leeca and Anthony Atkinson who died in the Seaview air crash in 1994,”
“It’s a special place for that family but for me it has the image of Jesus at the wedding banquet where his mother tells him to sort out the problem of having run out of wine and it reminds me that even though it’s a sad spot, it really does ground you that what we do isn’t always joy and wedding bells, there’s a lot of sadness that goes on in people’s lives, but God’s abundance in that story comes through, and in that window.”
“I often look at it and think I’m so blessed to have been here and to deal with a community that is so amazing.”
The Church walls are hand pressed sandstock bricks, rendered inside and out, on mudstone foundations with stone windows and door surrounds. It is cruciform in plan, 105ft long, 92 ft across transepts, the nave is 30ft wide. The high pitched timber roof trusses have hammer beams and support purlins, rafters and boarding under the present aluminium sheeting which replaced at least two previous coverings. Most pews are of the original cedar, restored, All the windows are of stained or pressed glass, some are original. The Walker two manual pipe organ was made and installed in 1866.
The Hall walls are also sandstocks on stone foundations with a galvanised iron roof, the former two-storied master’s house is now the hall kitchen, entrance hall and meeting room, with Sunday school quarters above.
1863-64 – Church exterior walls were rendered 1865 – Bellfry added to north gable 1920 – North transept was converted to a chapel 1952-53 – Sanctuary floor was replaced by a raised concrete slab and a nave centre aisle was adopted
St John’s is the “mother” church of many Newcastle parishes and is linked with the history of early Australian white settlement. Through the Australian Agriculture (A.A.) Company, which donated the land for the site, some A.A. directors in England subscribed money to build the church, school hall, and rectory. The most generous being Walter Stevenson Davidson, who accompanied John Macarthur’s dispatch to England in disgrace for taking part in a duel. Davidson was a nephew of Sir Walter Farquhar, Bart., Physician to King George IV, and a patron of Macarthur, who went on to found the Australian wool industry, with some of the sheep from the Royal flock.
St John’s history begins in the period of William Tyrrell, the first bishop of Newcastle and his efforts to provide schools and churches, the period of the “United Church of England and Ireland”, the transition of Newcastle from mining to industry and residential, and links with colonial chaplains and their subsidised salaries.
Pleased to be able to share – my great great grandfather Henry Martin, far right, holding the boat.
This is taken in the water around the Pilot Station where he worked as crew of the “Victoria” Lifeboat. (Olive Hoggan’s (also her gr.g/father) photo.)
Henry Martin d.1899, No 2, Pilots Row, Newcastle, now called the Boatmens Cottages on Nobbys Rd. opposite Fort Scratchley. The 1st rescue while working on the “Victoria”, we have record of, is the “City of Newcastle”.
The little boy in the photo is Charles Henry Martin, son of Henry Martin, so dates the photo to approximately 1880.
Anyone who is keen on Newcastle’s history owes a great debt of gratitude to Ralph Snowball.
End of Dyke, Newcastle, NSW, 19 July 1900
Thousands of his glass negatives have been preserved and digitised by the University of Newcastle Archives and Cultural Collections and browsing through them on Flickr is bound to lead to hours disappearing down this fantastic historical rabbit-hole.
Photo: Ralph Snowball collection held by the University of Newcastle